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The Story of Pavlik Morozov

 
 
Согласно официальной версии, Павлик  Морозов (1918  — 1932) — юный пионер, который отважно разоблачал кулаков и был убит ими из мести.  В ходе следствия и суда над своим отцом, председателем Герасимовского сельсовета Трофимом Морозовым, дал против него показания. Спустя несколько месяцев после этого Павел и его 8-летний брат Фёдор, отправившиеся в лес за ягодами, были найдены мёртвыми с ножевыми ранениями. В убийстве были обвинены их собственный дед Сергей (отец Трофима Морозова) и 19-летний двоюродный брат Данила, а также бабушка Ксения (как соучастница) и крёстный отец Павла, муж его тёти Арсений Кулуканов (в качестве деревенского «кулака» — как инициатор и организатор убийства). Все они были расстреляны.

Имя Морозова было присвоено герасимовскому и другим колхозам, школам, пионерским дружинам. Павлику Морозову были установлены памятники, о нём слагали стихи и песни, была написана одноимённая опера. В 1955 году он под № 1 был занесён в Книгу почёта Всесоюзной пионерской организации им. В. И. Ленина.

В последнее время господствующим становится восприятие Павлика Морозова как невинной жертвы социальных «игр» взрослых.
  Pavlik Morozov (1918 – 1932)  was a Soviet youth glorified by the Soviet Union propaganda as a martyr. His story, dated to 1932, is that of a 13-year old boy who denounced his father to the authorities and was in turn killed by his family. It was a Soviet morality tale: opposing the state was selfish and reactionary, and state was a higher virtue than family love.

The most popular account of the story is as follows: born to poor peasants in a small village of Gerasimovka. Morozov was a dedicated Young Pioneer and a supporter of Stalin's collectivization of farms. In 1932 Pavlik reported his father to the political police (GPU). Supposedly, Morozov's father, the Chairman of the Village Soviet, had been "forging documents and selling them to the bandits and enemies of the Soviet State" (as the sentence read). The elder Morozov, Trofim, was sentenced to ten years in a labor camp, and later executed.  However, Pavlik's family did not take kindly to his activities: on September 3 of that year, his uncle, grandfather, grandmother and a cousin murdered him, along with his younger brother. All of them except the uncle were rounded up by the GPU and convicted to the execution by a firing squad.

His story was a subject of compulsory children readings, songs, plays, a symphonic poem, a full-length opera and many biographies. The cult had a huge impact on moral norms of generations of children.


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